Institute on Education Law and Policy

Setting the State for Informed, Objective Deliberation on
School Choice

Bibliography--Effects of School Choice Programs

(Updated 2/23/2006)

Erica Adelsheimer
, What We Know About Vouchers: The Facts Behind the Rhetoric (West Ed Pol’y Program, Sept. 1999), at

Susan L. Aud and Leon Michos, Spreading Freedom and Saving Money: The Fiscal Impact of the D.C. Voucher Program (Cato Institute and Friedman Foundation, Jan. 2006), at

Clive R. Belfield, The Evidence of Education Vouchers: An Application to the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program, National Center for the Study of Privatization in Education, Columbia Univ. (Jan. 2006), at .

Clive R. Belfield & Henry M. Levin,
The Effects of Competition on Educational Outcomes: A Review of US Evidence
, National Center for the Study of Privatization in Education, Columbia Univ. (2002), at

Clive R. Belfield & Henry M. Levin
, The Effects of Competition Between Schools on Educational Outcomes: A Review for the United States, 72 Rev. Educ. Res. 279 (2002).

Martin Carnoy, School Vouchers: Examining the Evidence (Econ. Pol’y Inst. 2001).

Martin Carnoy, Do School Vouchers Improve Student Performance?, 12
Am. Prospect Issue 1 (2001), at

Elizabeth M. Caucutt, Educational Vouchers When there are Peer Group Effects--Size Matters, 43 Int’l Econ. Rev. 195 (2002).

Julie Berry Cullen, et al., The Impact of School Choice on Student Outcomes: An Analysis of the Chicago Public Schools (Nat'l Bureau of Econ. Research, Working Paper No. 7888, 2000). at

Edward B. Fiske & Helen F. Ladd, After Zelman: The Need to Focus on the Core Education Issues, TCRecord (2002).

Erica Frankenberg and Chungmei Lee, Charter Schools and Race: A Lost Opportunity for Integrated Education (The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University, July 2003), at

Bruce Fuller et al., School Choice: Abundant Hopes, Scarce Evidence of Results (Policy Analysis for California Education, University of California, 1999), at

Christopher R. Geller et al., The Effect of Private School Competition on Public School Performance (Nat’l. Ctr. for the Study of Privatization in Educ., Colum. Univ., 2001), at

Brian Gill et al., Rhetoric vs. Reality: What We Know and What We Need to Know About Vouchers and Charter Schools (Rand Corp. 2001).

Jay P. Greene, The Surprising Consensus on School Choice, 144 Pub. Int. 19 (2001).

Jay P. Greene & Marcus A. Winters, When Schools Compete: The Effects of Vouchers on Florida Public School Achievement (Ctr. for Civic Innovation, The Manhattan Inst., Aug. 2003), at

Jay P. Greene et al., Apples to Apples: An Evaluation of Charter Schools Serving General Student Populations (Center for Civic Innovation, The Manhattan Institute July 2003), at

Jay P. Greene et al., Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment, at

Frederick M. Hess, Revolution at the Margins: The Impact of Competition on Urban School Systems (Brookings Institution Press 2002).

Frederick M. Hess & Patrick J. McGuinn, Muffled by the Din: The Competitive Noneffects of the Cleveland Voucher Program, 104 TCRecord (2002), at

Caroline Minter Hoxby, A Straightforward Comparison of Charter Schools and Regular Public Schools in the US (Harvard University, National Bureau of Economic Research, Sept. 2004).

Caroline Minter Hoxby, Rising Tide, 1 Education Next 68, No. 4, at

William G. Howell & Paul E. Peterson, The Education Gap: Vouchers and Urban Schools (Brookings Institution Press 2002).

William G. Howell et al, School Vouchers and Academic Performance: Results from Three Randomized Field Trials, 21 J. of Pol’y Analysis & Mgmt. 191 (2002).

Alan B. Krueger, Another Look at the New York City School Voucher Experiment (paper presented at the Conference on Randomized Experimentation in the Social Sciences, Aug. 20, 2002), at

Helen F. Ladd & Edward B. Fiske, The Uneven Playing Field of School Choice: Evidence from New Zealand, 20 J. of Pol’y Analysis & Mgmt. 43 (2001).

Daniel Mayer et al., School Choice in New York City after Three Years: An Evaluation of the School Choice Scholarship Program, (Mathematica Pol’y Res., Inc. February 2002, MPS Reference No. 8404-045), at

Patrick McEwan, The Potential Impact of Large-Scale Voucher Programs, 70 Rev. of Educational Research 103 (2000).

Kim K. Metcalf et. al, Evaluation of the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program 1996-2001 (Ind. Ctr. for Eval., Ind. Univ., 2003), at

Kim K. Metcalf et al., Cleveland Scholarship Program Evaluation 1997-2000 (Ind. Ctr. for Evaluation, Ind. Univ., 2001), at

Sean F. Reardon & John T. Yun, Segregation in Church & State?: Vouchers and Racial Enrollment Patterns Among Public & Private Schools, Teachers’ C. Rec. (July 15, 2002), at

Cecilia Elena Rouse, Private School Vouchers and Student Achievement: An Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (Nat’l Bureau of Econ. Research, Working Paper No. 5964, 1997).

Paul Teske & Mark Schneider, What Research Can Tell Policymakers About School Choice, 20 J. of Pol’y Analysis & Mgmt., 609 (2001).

John F. Witte et al., Fifth-Year Report: Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (1995), at